GW4 living labs: Scope 3 and the road to net zero

How to achieve net zero emissions is still unresolved, and organisations increasingly seek support from external sources of knowledge. Consequently there has been an increase in the use of living lab models as places of experimentation and innovation for climate-related research and development. However, there remain questions about what constitutes a living lab and how they work in practice.  This literature review commissioned by GW4 looks at how living labs are defined, designed and implemented, how universities can support a living lab model, and how communicating living labs in a wider societal context can be achieved.